What is inflation and its various forms? Are there any professions which are not affected by inflation?

What is inflation and its various forms? Are there any professions which are not affected by inflation?

Inflation and its forms are given as under:-

(a)                 Monetary Inflation. More the money in circulation in the market more inflation would be fueled by it with the condition that goods and services remain constant.


(b)                Price Inflation. When there is overall increase in the prices of essential goods. Supply remaining static while demand becoming more due to factors other than economics.


(c)                 Deflation. When the prices of goods and services are lowered. This is sometimes not beneficial because the suppliers of goods and services are adversely effected – his financial assets do not increase in proportion to the assets used for producing his goods. Fact remains, for any finished goods or ensure production from his fields, to be marketably suitable; raw materials, manpower, water, fertilizers are the necessary inputs. For this, finance is required. The poor farmer has to meet the input expenditures either from his own paltry savings or get loans from the bank or any other sources. and thus create supply of those goods. If goods produced or supply from the fields are sold cheap they may face financial stringency and may not have the incentive to produce the goods more resulting in loss of revenue. Rather than becoming a financial asset (not yielding corresponding fillip to their profit) their produce becomes a financial liability. We have seen farmers throwing their entire potatoes because it was not beneficial for them to market them after spending money on cartage etc. This produces a situation of sufficiency in supply but less in deliverance to the producers. And if the producer has taken loan from the banks or any other agencies (as it happens so) then their future becomes bleak and sometimes they are constrained to commit suicides which we have witnessed in many states of India.

In both the cases the farmer is the sufferer. When yield is more but less profitable due to market factors than the input in the fields or when return or yield is less due to others factors (not in the control of the farmers) like rains etc.

(d)                Hyperinflation. When prices of essential goods shoot up and go out of control due to non-availability of essential goods in the market owing to less supply or may be due to hoarding by the unscrupulous profiteers in anticipation of the spiral in the prices in future. Sometimes when seasonal rains impact the particular crops, it will fuel inflationary spiral because of its less availability. This happened in the this month in India. More than 75,000 tons of dalls of various varieties were found to have been hoarded by some profiteers in different cities in raids conducted by the law enforcement agencies. Sometimes there is also a tacit understanding between the some businessmen to sell particular commodity at the rate agreed only and create an artificial scarcity. This is termed as cartel. This is resorted to by many of the businessmen in order to exploit the demand and supply mechanisms and earn windfall profit in festivals etc.


(e)                 Stagflation. It is the result of uncontrolled inflation, slow economic growth coupled with creation of less employment for the masses. In many countries of the world this has been happening. This results when demand is not in commensurate with the supply in the market.


When there is less or no propensity of people to purchase goods and services or when the circulation of currency is more than the goods and services required in the market. Inflation is due to the following:-

  1. Lack of propensity to purchase goods and services, means less money in the hands of people so as to buy goods and services.

  2. Demand is more than supply of goods and services. When there is scarcity of goods and services in the market meaning no additional to supply in the market to meet the shortfall.

  3. Due to hoarding of essential commodities. When unscrupulous elements /profiteers hoard the essential commodities and market them at the time of their convenience – on some festivals or any other appropriate time when they can garner more from the hoarded goods.

  4. Less or no Agricultural Production. Water is an essential factor for the crops of any variety to give adequate yield. Less rains means less water for the growth of the plants in the fields consequently less or no production. Having less or no production means less commodities in the market and even a small kid could understand and anticipate what would happen in due course of time; fueling of inflation and if nothing tangible solution is sought by the authorities, it may spiral into stagflation.

  5. Less or no industrial production. When we have less agricultural production, it impacts industrial production too because raw materials for the industries comes from farm produce. Less industrial production means prices of the products available in the market sky rockets bringing in its wake inflation of highest order.

  6. Population and inflation. When we have more mouths to feed, demand for commodities/goods and services would be more and the consequent result is anybody’s guess. This is more rampant when unemployment index touches its zenith.

  7. Demonstrative effect. Some people purchase more commodities for demonstration / to show off their purchasing power /power and pelf and economic clout sometimes creating supply vacuum which we can term as creation of artificial scarcity in the market.

  8. Consumption by those who has more propensity to consume and purchase. While there is scarcity of supply of goods and services due to one reason or another some with resources stock more goods and services and sometimes purchase more than their present requirements. This results in still more scarcity of goods and services, resulting in still more inflationary pressures.


While inflation is increase in prices of goods and services; deflation is lowering of prices of goods and services. Deflation too affects the producers more because their input cost for producing their goods and services is more than the prices they are constrained to sell in the market because of various factors.

Inflation could be in consumer commodities (food, metals, fuel, finished goods etc), tangible assets (any organization which uses its assets (real estate) such as building, machinery, equipment etc in order to produce consumer goods or services or real estate) or financial assets (stocks, and bonds etc) or services (teaching of a teacher, carpentry for a carpenter, painting for a painter, plumbing for a plumber etc).

Measurement of Inflation: Inflation is measured by taking into account common set of goods and services and analyze the shifts in their prices over a stipulated period of time. In this quantity and quality of the goods too are taken into account. It is also ascertained that an increase or decrease in single commodity will not have meaningful impact on the overall prices and hence inflation thereof. For example, there has been manifold increase in the prices of pulses (dalls) but it has not impacted much the prices of other commodities thus not triggered excessive overall inflationary trend.


While inflation adversely impacts all sectors of economy of a country, hitting everybody’s capacity to purchase or pockets because either less goods and services are available or the available goods and services are less in supply and if available these very scarce and with high price tag. Similarly, it affects every professionals or professions without much exceptions and more so to those who have got fixed income from their monthly salaries and the problem becomes more cumbersome when these people have huge responsibilities; like meeting the expenditure on their children education, meeting expenditure at home front, purchase of home, expenses on hospitalization and other sundry expenses which may suddenly befall. This travesty is there in regard to fixed income group people; like government employees, public sector employees, private sector employees, etc. Everybody has to meet variety of demands and if supply is scarce they’ll have to shell out more money for the same goods and services.

In case of businessmen, they have to put in more capital firstly for purchase of capital intensive machinery and other equipment for starting any business and because of rise in prices of these requisite inputs for respective business enterprises their problem is compounded. More capital is required for undertaking the same business initiated earlier on with less capital. For instance, for real estate business more capital is required to meet the project costs and inflation is the enemy number one of any business due to cost overrun.

Further during inflation the loan from banks or any other sources will entail more interest rates which again is a inhibiting factor. Inflation also puts brakes on the sale of their ready to occupy units or products because of less propensity of the customers to buy because of inflationary pressures prevailing.

Despite the fact that inflationary tendencies take its toll everybody everywhere but professions or skills which are less capital intensive initially can gain even in inflation by dispensing their expertise because their services are indispensable for the society in general. These are:-

(a) Very less capital is required for training and starting the businesses related to tailoring job, electrical fitter job, welder, repairing of vehicles, computer repairing, mobile repairing, motor mechanics, etc. Then there are traditional professions like cobbler, hair cutting, sweeping, scavenging etc. Also, the money needed for the training on these skills / professions is not more in comparison with engineering or other educational pursuits. In these professions services rendered will bring more returns because of rampant inflation besides less or no input to continue these professions is needed. Inflation or no inflation these services are always required in any condition.

(b) Then there is second scenario; when there is inflation there is increase in prices of essential commodities, the hoarders of essential commodities will have field day and get a windfall profit – their commodities prices will fetch them more monetary gains without spending even a paisa on the commodities available with them. Be that as it may, the profiteers make money in such situations while the hapless people suffer the pangs of inflation. For instance if the prices of pulses increases from Rs. 100/- to Rs. 200/- per kg due to one factor or another then that person will gain excessively. Think of this gain if that fellow is having 100 quintal of pulses in his godown! This is for one commodity and what about the multiple of commodities whose prices increase during inflation.

(c) Then prominent beneficiaries from inflationary pressures are the ones who have taken debt from any bank etc with longer payment term for properties purchased or mortgaged. The government of the day too takes loans in the form of bonds etc at the time of inflation so as to meet its obligation and does its balancing act.

Conclusively, it could better be said that inflation adversely affects everybody, everywhere. As we are living in global village, any economic meltdown or slowdown impacts globally. It may be Greek debt crises, US or Chinese slowdowns will impact globally and increase unemployment and underemployment beside adversely affecting imports, exports, tourism industry etc. We have experienced fall in the prices of crude oil (which has fallen more than 50% and is sliding still down) has significantly advantageous to the countries which import crude oil but it is impacting adversely oil exporting countries. Thus it is right to say that if any part of the world slows down it will have ripple effect globally – without exception indeed. Here, in this sort of a scenario, the rich countries with resources have the to come the succor of poor countries and also to come up with solutions to ameliorate their economic health.













How to increase literacy rate of a country with special emphasis on rural areas including girl child and minority communities?

How to increase literacy rate of a country with special emphasis on rural areas including  girl child and minority communities?


 Best Answer:  We in India have more than 70% population living in rural areas. These people have to be educated about the need of education for their cohesion and adjustment with the educated people living in the urban and metropolitan cities in this highly surcharged atmosphere of competition. In order to teach more people, we have to reach more people; especially in rural areas. Although Government aided and  run educational schools and colleges are fulfilling the needs of the populace, yet, there is a urgent need to enhance the educational pursuit through people oriented programmes. The following are some of the aspects which are to be taken into account for spreading literacy amongst the people.

a/ Making the people aware about the need of education  through print and electronics medias. 

b/ Opening more schools and colleges in the less accessible areas. 

c/ Provide reading and other educational aids’ including books to the needy. 

d/ Providing uniforms to the needy. 

e/ Provision of scholarship to the needy. 

f/ Picking up the meritorious students for higher studies from the rural areas. 

g/ Give specialized type of education to the physically challenged children/children with special needs. 

h/ Periodically monitor the educational standard of the people areawise and devise measures for its improvement. 

i/ Provide grant-in-aid for needy for meeting needs arising out of educational pursuit. 

j/ Provide computers and other modern electronic aids for the schools. 

k/ Proper training and education for the teachers for making the educational pursuit a successful venture. 

l/ Make the people aware about teaching women folks with a view that if we teach a girl you teach a family as a whole.

m/ As far as possible make educational pursuit possible for adults also so that they could also assimilate in the society and get benefits that are accrued.

n/ Those amongst us who could not educate themselves due to some reason or the other, starting special classes for them so that they adjust with the society as a whole. NGOs should chip in for this.*

*Literacy rate of any country depends  on the facilities available in the forms of schools/educational institutions, needful infrastructure for these (study rooms, proper and clean toilet facilities – separate for boys and girls,  adequate number of trained teachers proportional to the students  so that individual necessary playing equipment/toys for specially needed children (for varieties of disabilities) with physiotherapist and specially trained teachers who could meet the needs of these gifted  children etc.


In rural India, there is a need of girls’ education because there is wide disparity in the literacy rate of boys and girls. It is well known fact that when we educate a girl, we educate the entire family as such because the child in the initial stage of growth and development, first lesson is imparted by the mother and if she is educated she can amply do so. Illiteracy of the females negatively impacts the entire family to which she goes after marriage. If she is literate and well educated besides cultured one; well versed in value system including traditional modes of behaviour then she can conveniently transfer/impart that value system to her children which doubtlessly will help afterwards in life when a child grows up and faces life. The sluggishness in females’ education could better be removed through the joint and sincere efforts of Government and parents. Efforts should also be made to convince the parents to send the girl child for necessary schooling.  An idea should be spread that both boys and girls need education for adjusting in the life. More so for girls for they have to assimilate themselves in different sort of environments after their marriage. Though in urban and metropolitan cities the literacy rate of girls has improved manifold yet in rural areas there are glitches like non-availability of more schools, teaching staff and other requisites like sanitation etc for girl students which need to be attended urgently.  More funds should be provisioned by the Government for infrastructural and other provisions in the rural areas.  If rural area with more population is awaken through literacy then the country as a whole will have inclusive progress.

Apart from giving fillip to education to girls, there is an urgent need of enhancing literacy rate amongst minorities along with attending to the caste related problems impacting their education. It has been experienced that children from these communities although enroll in the school in first standard but their dropout rate is too high because of factors like financial stringency due to poverty of parents, school available at far off places and available schools do not have trained and efficient staff including non-willingness on the parts of parents to send their children to school etc. Rather they would like their children, in many cases, to follow the parents’ traditional profession to meet the family financial needs. Actually absolute poverty too deters the pursuit of educational pursuits in the rural areas. Though Government is making efforts in educating the rural masses the need of education through publicity campaign and by opening new schools and bridging the gap yet still more needs to be done.









Dussehra is the  celebrated annually- a most sacred festival,

Devout rejoice this day as win of goodness over evil,

And take lesson for life that evil cannot have its sway forever,

It meets its end one day, however mighty be the perpetrator.


Lord Shri Ram the embodiment of righteousness

With most adorable traits with immense prowess

A reservoir of humility with simplicity in abundance

Tolerance, harmony and elderly reverence

That a son should have in abundance

For the adoring parents.

Lord Rama left for exile and leaving everything in Ayodhya,

When his father Shri Dashratha

Is constrained to act on the promises given in he past

To his wife Kakai – mother of Shri Bharata

And step mother of Lord Shri Rama,

Who had saved Shri Dashratha’s life once,

Consequently extracting a promise to be fulfilled in of her choice

To be redressed at a time most appropriate,

Manthra – the courtier of Kakai too showed her true color,

In making Kakai realize the promises,

Crown for her son Shri Bharata and exile for Shri Ramji,

Shri Ramji, as expected accepted exile for fourteen long years.

And that too without a demur,

He embraced the life simplest in the jungles,

Subsisting on the fruits and herbs,

That is the crux of a lesson for today’s children

Maa Sitaji too along with brother Lakshmana too accompanied Shri Ram


The Ravana, the king of Sri Lanka,

Representing design with evil intent,

With deception, abducted Sita Maa,

The loving consort of Shri Ram,

Kept her in his garden – Ashok Bhatika,

Exhorting her to marry him,

Sita Mata, an ideal wife,

Of an ideal husband,

Spurned his unethical wish with disdain at her command.

There was a battle so ferocious,

Between Lord Shri Ram and demon king Ravana,

Who despite his knowledge of Vedas and fond bhakata of Lord Shiva

Ruined his name and fame with his act of wickedness

An immorality of highest order – by all yardstick

Due to  which Ravana lost his everything dear to him,

His nears and dears and his forces, he prided

Including himself ultimately.

There is eternal lesson for all of us from this epic,

Remove the evil from our midst,

Burn it out, the sooner it is done the better,

As we burn the effigies of Ravana along with Kumbkarna and Meghnad.

Being a religious and yearly ritual,

Vijaydashmi ought to establish a kingdom of love,

Overflowing with peace, full of tolerance, goodwill for all,

A kingdom of love for everybody, leaving none

For it is celebration of destruction of evil and a win for truth an ultimate one.



Vijayadashami    or Dussehra or Dashahara (A Sanskrit word where Dasha means Sun will not rise and hara means defeat). This means setting the sun of the empire of Demon king Ravana at the hands of Lord Sri Rama for his evil actions. It also refers to killing of Mahishasura by Mata Dura. In other words, it is victory (Victory) of truth over evil – also referred to as Vijaydashmi.


In today scenario, the message given by Dussehra is still most relevant. The evil which pervades in any form or manifestation has to be nipped with an iron hand otherwise it will bring in its wake deaths and destruction. The violence by any community is condemnable. Civilized behavior is the need of the hour. Evil route is followed a few fringe groups but the society as a whole have to bear the brunt of it all. If the writ of the evil design in the form of Ravanas is not stopped then we all have to suffer the consequences. Letting the evil to have its own way means situation going awry. In that case Natural applies its own Law and has its own methods of curbing or stopping all these nefarious designs and its results are far reaching for us all.


Dussehra gives us a wonderful message that good always wins finally though it may take sometime yet it cannot go on indefinitely – ultimately truth prevails.  Even now, those who follow the rules of jungle will have to meet their Waterloo one day.  

After Nine Days of fasting and offering our prayers to MATA SHAKTI in its varied manifestations / forms which she represents; a day of reckoning dawns finally when She helps annihilates the evil from our midst and shows that Truth is the ultimate winner. The evil which demon kings Ravna or Meheshasura represented may have won for sometimes but it cannot go unchallenged; the evil designs cannot be allowed to last forever.  The God in the Heaven cannot allow these evil forces to go on and let their reign of terror rule on the masses and disturb the order established by our Lord.


When we have observed nine days fast besides observance of other pious deeds, being kind and compassionate towards needy, cleansed our body of all the negativity – anger, ill-will, deceit, jealousy etc then it means that we have invested in higher pedestal in our life. In other words, we have attained victory over the evil in all its manifestations. Vijaydashami  is the day of that victory – a decisive victory of goodness over evil.


Karma philosophy runs supreme for us all. If we resort to good deeds, results will be good and if we resort to bad deeds we can hardly expect good results. The life of gunas like Sattiva, Tamsic and Rajsvic and following these give us varied results, depending on the sincerity in which we undertake the same. The one who goes beyond these three gunas, get moksha – the complete liberation from births and deaths – merging with our Creator thenceforth for good and a complete liberation from the pangs of births and deaths.


The  evil deeds of king Ravana resulted not only his defeat and ultimate death it also resulted in  killing his brother Kumbkarna and Meghnath besides many of his demons –  evil forces who disturbed the prayers of sadhus and also their rituals were defiled besides the common people at that period of time subjected to torments. It also shows that those who pride over their prowess, status and material possessions will end up losers, if possession of these things make them egotistic. Similar was the case with Meheshasura; who too felt music for his misdeeds at the hands of Mata Shakti.


Every year effigies of Demon King Ravana, Kumbkaran and Meghnad are put to flames just to show to the world at large that everybody should introspect that consequence of evil  deeds would be its annihilation in all its forms and dimensions. Good symbolised by Lord Rama wins finally. Victory to the Truth. Defeat to the evil. Injustices committed have to be wiped out for the good of humanity so that the principles of justice and time-honored policy of fair-play are established.


This is the message of VIJAYDASHMI.  May people in general realise the import of this message and act accordingly. This is more relevant today than ever in the past because of the evil forces which are raising their heads. LET THERE BE VICTORY OF THE GOOD OVER THE EVIL.




A reality check is the need of the hour
As to why everybody likes a particular person but me not at all!
For a person to be liked by everybody

One has to first know one’s own self fully

The task of which is not seemingly easy

Because we’ve to remove every shred of negativity

That has made a residency so lasting

In our midst, alas, since long

Without us knowing anything about it all!

Also, emotional attachment and selfishness don’t go together

Fine-tuning ourselves in daily action is need of the hour

Thus cleanse the slush that exists with a broom so hard

Whilst our good deeds bring about magnetism in us

Which attract people of all hues

Thus satisfy our instinct of befriending

Those with whom we’ve heart-to-heart connect

And be friendly with as varied a people as one possibly can

Gift of genuine friendship flows from all sides then

Also friends we win when we’ve won attachment, jealousy, pride & rancor

And made a special space in our heart

For burring our differences which may creep in sometImes


Selfish amongst us create frustrating negativism

Adversaries of kinsman ship/ friendship is favoritism & nepotism

That we hand out to some chosen few knowingly

With motive so ulterior so intentionally

Thus deprive the chance of close intimacy.

God – the creator of everybody and everything around and beyond

Sends us cues so varied

Patiently waits for us to befriend Him

Need is to lift thin veil of skepticism

That exists in us as humans

Just remove this little hurdle

And have eternal friendship with our Lord.





Friendship is one of the noblest form of human response to show love or liking for the person for whom we extend our hand of friendship. It is not developed at the throw of a hat. It is developed partly with the divine intervention and partly due to attraction in individual’s character and also based on unconditional love that we shower for each other which is enduring and not based on delusions and misgivings. Friendship is a great cementing force and its enemies are skepticism, conditional love, jealousy, rancor, anger, etc. Friendship means giving love without any reservation or without any ulterior motive.


At home, we develop friendship with our parents and other close relatives with whom we have to live. While in the society, we develop linkages with peer groups in the formal and informal institutions. We meet some people who help us tide over problems but our friendship remains till our school or college days. Thereafter, we just forget them – this friendship is not perfected for being lasting one. All must have experienced such friendship during schooling days. Yet, the memories of those days remain throughout our life.


Then, there is meeting of distant strangers and we develop liking with that stranger just instantaneously and an inner urge springs from the inner recesses of our heart to render help to that total stranger. I view this developing of friendship is partly Creator’s law of attraction and partly due to Karmic results of previous birth(s)? Is not it a strange thing that we develop meeting of mind /companionship just at once without even iota of previous thought about it! That is irresistible attraction; we cannot help it really. This we can develop through inner cues. While I was serving, I had a sudden meeting of one of the officers. He met me and told that he was on the verge of retirement and wanted to meet me before his demitting office. I was really flabbergasted. He remained with us for about 15 days and such was his approach which really baffled me and I thought this attraction based on the Creator’s law of attraction.


Friendship flourishes till such time it is based on selflessness attitude, bereft of any egotistic tendencies and cannot be contaminated by any false propaganda because it is based on heart-to-heart relationship which is emotional based relationship and hence solid. Those who listen their innermost feelings or inner voices and make friendship because that friendship has innermost foundation. This is not a fragile relationship under any yardstick. No negative external factors like ill-will, backbiting or any sort of situation or tain; manmade or situational can come in the way of this friendship. We sometimes develop liking for others taking into account their financial status or dilution created by physical attraction. This friendship is not lasting because both of these factors are impermanent. Wheel of wealth always revolves; sometimes we may be up and at other times we may be down. Also, our facial or bodily appearance too can fade after sometimes. Then what is left of this sort of a friendship? We can just say that we’ve got friends aplenty but a simple test of judging their bona-fide will indicate that that friendship is standing on castles made of sand.


We can then develop friendship with others we’ve to first of all rid ourselves of all the negativity that is dormant in us. More the positive thinking we develop in life, more the friends we develop in our life. In other words, positivity has special affinity with friendship.   We’ve to be pure, selfless and develop spiritual bent of mind. The friendship developed on the bedrock of our character is eternal. I opine a person with a sound character attract likeminded one for a friendship and the basis of the friendship is developed in the previous birth(s) To whomsoever we come across, there is a linkage in that with respect to friendship. This could be friendship between men and men, men and women, women with women, brother with brother, sister with sister etc. i.e. friendship is a necessity in all human relations without discrimination of high or low. It is shared and a sheer feeling of togetherness despite shortcomings. We share everything with a friend – in weal and woe we bond together to further our common cause of living life with amity like soul mates.

Friendship could be increased from one to ten since we do not lose anything in sharing that our Lord has bestowed us.


Hand of friendship if it comes to us should be accepted as such and should not be spurned. Enhanced friendship circle in the neighborhood helps solve the problems faced by the neighbours. By doing so, we can also remove any mistrust that may be rampant between the neighbor.


It is also to be remembered that friendship is not a one way traffic. If I continue extending the hand of friendship and the other one keeps spurning it then let it be that way. Friendship cannot be forced on somebody thinking that friendship cannot be based on self centeredness. Those people who are conceited, fastidious and egocentric cannot have magnetism to attract others.


We ought to make friends with people who are pure and truthful besides faithful to the core. In Holy Quran it has been mentioned: To choose someone for friendship purely on the basis of his piety and faith, only to satisfy Allah is akin to earmarking a place in Paradise. One must take up friends, if only on the basis of faith and good ethics.


  • Make friendship with like-minded people. It should be our endeavour to make friendship with likeminded people because they could be relied upon and can partake /share our good and bad occasions. If we make friendship with those who are socially and economically better than us then that friendship may not be lasting because inferiority factor will always remain haunting us. It is not that friendship cannot be there between the people of high and low stratas. There was friendship between Lord Krishna and Sudhama (a childhood friend of Krishna) which remained eternal and an example for us to follow. Lord Krishana received Sudhama at his new kingdom at Dwarka and even washed his feet and finally gave him the parting gifts.


  • Friendship with anti-social elements will impact ourselves. It is said ‘a man is known by the company he keeps’ – meaning, we should choose our friends with care and caution. It also means that we should shun bad person? Then who will embrace that ‘bad person’ – a God forsaken man? In the society we have people with varied traits. Those amongst us who may not have got opportunities to imbibe good value system because of their family condition coupled with environment in which they were brought up they picked up anti-social characteristics. Shunning them entirely means giving fillip to their bad traits. Best way is to associate with them, if possible, make friends with them and try refining them. If a notorious dacoit named Vakmiki could be transformed to Rishi Valmiki (who penned down Ramyana) then why not a ‘bad person’ amongst us cannot be transformed into a good person? Although we may not consider them making them as friends yet we cannot just ignore them. Need is to refine them, if possible, through persuasion but not through coercion. Taking in account the wisdom from the saying; hate the sin but not the sinner’ we can make friends with this sort of a person because he is our soul mate. We have to remember what Lord Jesus Christ said “love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.”


  • The friendship is unconditional. There are no strings attached, of any kind, in friendship, no conditions imposed by any party. In other words no ifs and whats are there between friends.


  • There are the people who consider themselves duped by their own bosom friends. They should not lose heart. Making friends with animals, plants, books will suit them more than making friends with humans who are not trustworthy. Some may argue that despite their best efforts they could not make friends with anybody while others may rue the day they got association with some particular fellow(s) but their experience, in real life, turned out to be negative. This like scenario cannot be disputed now a days because selfishness taking centre stage in our daily behavior. In this sort of a contingency, we can make friendship with books which can give us wisdom and will to survive in any situation. Better still, we can make friends with animals or birds or plants. These will not be demanding in any way and their love will be unconditional to say the least.


  • If nothing works make friendship with yourself. If we silently introspect / turn inwards and explore our own self for self realization then most of outer attachments will vanish in thin air. Knowing self means knowing everything including our Creator. Here we free ourselves from the clutches of earthy worries and try knowing the worth of our own existence – who is behind my existence. Through self analysis / introspection we can ensure progress of our soul. This way we realize that our thoughts and emotions thereof are the results of the state of our body. Healthy we are, more resilience we possess and consequently more attraction we have in attracting friends.


  • Make friendship with God. Ultimate and incessant source of booster to a friendless person is our Creator and finally get eternal peace. In Sri Granth Sahib it has been expounded: In this world, the true Guru is the ocean of peace; there is no other place to rest and have peace. The world is afflicted with the painful disease of egotism; dying, it cries out in pain, only to be reborn. O mind, serve the true Guru and obtain peace. If you serve the true Guru, you shall find peace. Otherwise, you shall depart after wasting away your life in vain


  • ‘The transcendental relation of Arjuna with Krshna is of the dear most friendship’. Similarly, we can also establish our friendship with Him. We are actually SOUL and He is the SUPER SOUL hence we are part of Him only. By this, our friendship could be eternal. For this to be a reality, we have first of all make friends with His creations. Merely then only we can identify ourselves with Him. We’ve to love each and everything which He has created.


  • We should not make friendship easily but when friendhip is developed then it should be for good. In this age of KALI YUGA when there is trust deficit between the humans, we have to be very circumspect in choosing our friends. The important things which we’ve to take into account while choosing friends are:-


  • Social background.


  • Selfless attitude.


  • God oriented.


  • Sense of sacrifice.


  • Adaptive and receptive to the change.


  • Possesses positive traits like compassion, understanding and helping the needy according to our capacity, etc.


  • Fear not while taking decisions impinging on others’ welfare.


  • Before making friendship make a special place in your heart to bury the differences / hatchet of your friend otherwise you cannot have a true friend. It is an undisputed fact that man makes mistakes. While the mistake made are not intentional then we have to forget and forgive that friend of ours. At times, we have to ignore the unintentional glaring mistakes of our friends and relatives simply when there is no option but to do so and bury those mistakes in the ‘burring place of our heart! I opine there is no other option?


  • All the people are different, even brothers born in the same parents differ in their temperament and they develop friendship with different people of which respective choices.



  • Friend is the one who partakes our pains and pleasures – more so when he/she helps us in our lean period. But now a days friendship is based on: friends are plenty when your purse of full. These fair weather friends are always there for asking. We’ve to maintain a fair distance from them lest they exploit our emotions for satisfaction of their ulterior motives.


  • Internet has helped giving vast meaning to friendship. In fact use of internet has given a new meaning and substance to friendship. Need is to find true friends amongst the maze of them – but here to we’ve to be quite careful in developing friendship lest somebody takes advantage of our soft feelings.


  • In friendship false appreciation and falsification of fact leads to breakage of friendship when found out.


  • Friendship and marriage are two different entities. Girl friend may or may not agree for a marriage. There are so many instances where boy and girl remained friends but could not agree for marriage due to one reason or another.


  • We can make friendship even with a brute if we try to understand why that fellow had become brute. There may be some compelling reason of circumstances which forced that fellow to be so?


  • When we build roadblocks of conditions on friendship then we reach nowhere from that road.








Fact stands out India is a land rich in cultural mores
Here the festivals are galore
Commemorated on certain seasons or occasions
Amongst the venerated festivals in Hindu traditions
Navratri attracts all shades of people for celebrations
Celebrated two times in a year
March-April – as Chaitra Navratri,
October-November – as the Shradha Navratri.
Nav-ratri is the created from two Hindi expressions
‘Nav’ meaning nine
And ‘ratri’ meaning night
Related to Goddess Durga – the Warrior
Attired in mesmerizing dress in red colour
Mounted on the lion so ferocious
Navratri too is linked with fertility of land
Folks observe the fitness of earth
By testing seeds germination in pots earthen
Folks also observe fasting rigidly
And keep themselves chaste
In words and in deeds indeed.

Legends abound about Navratri.

Meheshsura the demon king worshipped Lord Shiva
Who grants him the boon of invincibility even from Gods
Starts killing people most innocent
And even acquired the Seven Lokas by force
Including the thrown of Indra.

To annihilate the powerful Maheshsura
The Trinity & other Gods confabulated
For creating a power supreme for defeating the demon
Created Ma Shakti – Mother the most powerful one
Or Durga, the Warrior Goddess.
The war between Maheshasur and Mother Divine
Lasted for days nine
On day tenth She killed him
Navratri thus symbolizes the victory of good over evil

On (9th day) Mahanavami nine young girls are worshiped
As Nine Forms of Durga Goddess
And gifted food and new dresses.


Another legend has it
King Daksha the King of Himalayan Kingdom
Was blessed with a daughter
He named her Uma – a most beautiful one
She worshipped Lord Shiva immeasurably
So that He may accept her in marriage easily
Having pleased Lord Shiva
Thus marries Uma
Against the wishes of King Dhaksha
One day King Dhaksha held a grand Yagna
All Gods except Shiva were invited
Uma wanted to attend
Yagna with Lord Shiva’s reservation even
And against His wishes
King Daksha reprimanded her for coming uninvited
In rage she jumps into Agni Kund (Fire-grate) and perished
And was termed as Sati
Madev as Virbadhara took King Daksha task for this
On rebirth (as Parbati) she marries Lord Shiva again
She comes to Her parents to stay for Nine Days
And thus we celebrate these Nine Days as Navratri.

Legend also has it that Lord Rama
Worshipped Goddess Durga’s
Nine Forms for nine days
On day tenth He was able to kill powerful demon king Ravana
Thus day tenth is celebrated as Vijaydakshmi or Dussehra
First three days are dedicated to Goddess Durga
In the form of child; young girl and mature woman
The three varied stages of womanhood
Symbolizing victory of evil over falsehood
Next three days are dedicated to Goddess of Wealth & Prosperity
Her name is Goddess Lakshmi
She symbolizes wealth; peace and prosperity
Last three days are commemorated in the name of Goddess Saraswati
The Goddess of knowledge
In snowy white dress
Mounted on a white swan

Thus Navratri is termed as the sign

Of purity and well-being.




Undoubtedly, India is a land of festivals, with diverse history besides diverse cultural mores. All  festivals are occasioned either on change of certain seasons or based on certain historical events. People call the same festival differently in different regions but spirit behind all these remains just vibrant. Enthusiasm and gaiety remain the guiding force behind all the celebrations. It may be dussehra; diwali; holi; lohri; Eid; Good Friday; Guru Purabhs or any other festival of any religion, the spirit of celebration remains the binding force.

Literally, the word, NAVRATRI – NAV means NINE and RATRI means NIGHTS. Prayers and fasting is observed by devout during these nine days. A lighter refreshments, if taken at all, to keep light and pure in body and mind like mountain air and helps an individual to pray with a focused mind. This also provides the devotees a freedom from adulteration and contamination both in body and mind besides purifying soul along with keeping it taint-free of any sort. All these traits enhance the Karmic Credit and credibility of an individual devotee who observes the fasts and also offers sincere prayers during these days with utmost devotion. This lightness in body and mind provides us an opportunity to devote our mind in our prayers to Goddess  Durga maa – an embodiment of power ‘shakti’.


Besides observing fasts, devotees organize congregations in the form of melas and also enact programmes and cultural functions in the form of group dances and devotional songs. For example famous ‘garva dance’ is organized in the state of Gujarat and devotional songs and dance competitions are organized in West Bengal besides prayers in the specially erected and decorated pandals is a usual pheno.  People visit the famous temples of Vaishno Devi in Katra (in Jammu province) besides all the temples of Goddess Durga in its different forms / manifestations attract devotees in these nine days.


The main driving force of the Navratri is to purify our thoughts and deeds thereof. In these nine days devout observe strict fasts; remain chaste and desist from telling lies. Wish that people always behave like this all the days!


The first three days are celebrated on the name of Durga Mata – Goddess with immense power

For next three days she is worshipped as spiritual wealth – Mata Lakshmi.


Subsequently for next three days, she is Goddess of wisdom – the Goddess Saraswati. It bestows spiritual enlightenment besides showering an individual with all round success.


It is useful for our benefit to know the importance of each day.


  1. First Day. On the first day, Mata Durga is termed as Shailputri – the daughter of Himalaya and the consort of Lord Shiva.


  1. Second Day. Mata Durga on the second day is called as Brahmacharini which represents worship. She is the embodiment of huge reserve of power – Shakti.


  1. Third Day. On the third day, the Goddess is venerated as Chandraghanta. She is the embodiment of power and beauty.


  1. Fourth Day. On the fourth day, Maan Durga is worshipped in the form of Kushmanda – the creator of whole universe by the power of her laughter.


  1. Fifth Day. Here on this day, Eskandha – the main warrior of Gods’ army.


  1. Sixth Day. On the sixth day, Mataji takes the form of Katyayani with three eyes and four hands – all powerful and with immense grace.


  1. Seventh Day. On this day, Maan Durga takes the form of Kalratri – she is shown as black as dark night with four hands and makes the evil doers fearless.


  1. Eighth Day. On the eighth day, the Mata Durga takes the form of Maha Gauri – with beauty besides having calmness and exhibits immense wisdom.


  1. Nineth Day. On the nineth day, Maan Durga is worshipped as Siddidatri – with all the eight sidhis. In this form, she is worshipped by all.


Benefits of Navratri:-


  • Fasts keep our digestive system in fine and helps maintain our body healthy.


  • It purifies our mind because we pray Goddess continuously for nine days/nights in the way it is done by Muslims in RAMZAN FASTING.


  • Purification of body and mind means spiritually directed conscious mind thus a shift from negativity to positivity


  • Congregations in melas etc help in people to people contacts thus animosity, if any, gets obliterated and a feeling of fellow feeling and cooperation sprout.


  • Group dances and spiritual song competitions enhance competitive spirits in the youth and also help them direct their latent energies to productive use.


  • Devotees, in their zeal to show earnest desire to have total connectivity with Goddess Durgaji, offer singular devotion to Her during these auspicious days, reap the harvest of answering their problems faced and get PEACE OF MIND in their lives as a reward of this worship.





It is an origin or beginning or formation of an idea, or initiation of an idea, or initiation of plan, clue to something to be done, comprehension, have an inkling, creation of something in the mind, Inventive skill, fertilization of an idea, construct an idea about something new. Science has taught us that matter is made of invisible building blocks – electrons and protons but can anybody tell us why some electrons and protons become materials and others become living beings? In Indian context, our sages say that everything originates from God and goes back to Him only. For perception to be 100% it is a must that we have bodily discipline, mental discipline and spiritual discipline then all the obstacles to our path are eliminated. Knowledge and experience count much in this respect.

Everything that sees the light of the day is product of an idea. For production of that idea there must have been cause of producing that idea.


Conception is an act or situation or power or capability of an individual to form an idea, new thought or initiation of thought or an start of an idea, beginning of something which is conceived in the mind or believed in the form of a thought or belief. It could be termed as the first idea or thought. It is in fact synonymous with birth of an idea, notion, or a plan on which necessary action could be initiated for execution. It is in fact an original opinion/conception/thought/idea.
The Latin word for conception meaning abstract or theoretical based on a general idea and is associated with faculty of contriving or having inventive skill or thought. Sometimes, we may just be perplexed, as to whose idea was about existence of God – who first conceived the idea about God? Or who gave the idea of writing religious scriptures? Fact stands out that the original idea came from our Creator through Saints / Rishis gleaned through intense meditation / bhakti.

One thought conceived or idea may undergo evolution after experiencing a number of times. Initially earth was considered to be not spherically round but as time passed; with exploration and travel round the world, this idea changed and now it is taken as such.
Thought processes help us in growth in different fields. The history of man’s evolution is based on this evolutionary perspective only. In different space and time man has improved by his thought processes – initially the thoughts may be unrefined or raw in nature and then that thought got tested under different conditions under the ambit of cosmic laws. If found suitable, it serves the purpose of evolution otherwise discarded. In other words, man is bound by the cosmic laws to develop consciously and non-consciously. When we put our conceptual thoughts into action it helps in evolution of our thought and with it our life gets influenced.

Everything in the universe is so well planned that no accidents take place there and who created this universe? Whose idea was its creation? One who attains the wisdom and realizes that everything is created, in essence by God, though hidden in appearance.


The main stumbling block in thought and its use is non-use of focused mind or concentration or undivided attention that is essential for a thought to fructify in real sense of terms. It is also a fact that we may not fix our attention on job-at-hand thus our effort does not pay dividends at it ought to when undivided attention is paid to the idea conceived. One thing at a time can bring about good results and we can gain traction on the matter at hand. Non-concentration leads to waste of thought originated. Animals act on instinct whereas man has got the power of discrimination so it should be used judiciously. We should wholly reflect / contemplate on what has to be accomplished. In other words, whatever we do should be based on premeditated thoughts otherwise it would be a waste of time and energy. Doing everything consciously and not absentmindedly makes difference. Conceived thoughts could be sieved in such a manner that whatever is not essential should be ignored and essentials of it all be pursued creatively and with zeal and enthusiasm.

It should never be forgotten that our sincere efforts are seconded by our Creator. We should use the creative power of our Creator. Worldly temptations are alluring us always and make us non-focused. When we believe that God is there to help us then we focus on the conceived thought with a single minded devotion and get optimum results.

Actually the intelligence coupled with the drive that He has bestowed in us are sufficient to fulfill our life’s mission. Practicing silence is one of the best methods to silence the unnecessary thoughts that penetrate/interrupt during our creative pursuit.

We fail to fulfill our goal simply because our technique is ineffectual or our attempt is not that deep. Here our endeavour should be to repeat the process differently and get the wholesome result or go really deep into the superconscious self – a prayer in which our soul be burning with a desire for fructification of our effort  then our conceived idea will result into tangible results.

Nature operates in three ways: creative or conceptual thinking, preservative (perception of the concetualised idea) and dissolutive. In olden times, humans had to fight with different kinds of elements, both natural and man made. Here survival of the fittest results (Darwin theory)  Waves of thoughts about how to fight against these dangerous elements germinated in the mind of humans, that is also termed as creative state, then that idea is to be put to use.

Perception is interpretation of sensory information and how best we can respond to the information (conceived idea) we are having. It goes to show that we actually conceive an idea and then identify that idea by putting the same into practice. We can take this sensory information from our environs in the form of practical experiences and thus make perception beneficial in the way it is required depending on space and time. For example, we can combine different letters and make a word of our choice. Then these words could be used, keeping in mind the other parameters for its use.

Perception is important for us all to survive in the environment in which we live. If we want to live in a particular locality, we take into consideration the environs around in the form of local populace, social etiquettes of those people, availability of barest necessities of life besides how best we can get used to all these requisites.

Then perception also involves sensory organs. For example, visualizing a dangerous situation through sight and hearing, we tend to avoid an incident. Before plunging into a water we visualize the current or flow of water or there may be some other danger.

A conceived idea could be put to practice. The quantity of practice perfects our quality of conception and perception and vice versa. It goes to show that as we experience, the quality of our work improves optimally – gaining experience means enhancement in our conception and subsequently perception.


There is no perception without conception. We’ve to have an idea of what is our plan of action would be before effort is made to fructify that idea. When we listen with our ears, look with our eyes and use of head and heart and then act this act of ours is enduring and ingenious.

How best we utilize our conceptual idea depends the sincerity of our effort in our perception. Our idea remains a theory just theoretical or notional if the same is not put to practice with sincerity.

Thus it could better be concluded that what we conceive, we’ve to put to practice otherwise that conception will not serve any purpose. Also, idea which is emanated from heart, brings in its wake better results. Both these terms are essential for a healthy living but for both; graces of our Creator, our sincere effort(s) and appropriate environment play indomitable role.